ESG NRG

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Oxford Principles for Net Zero carbon offsetting

Net Zero means residual emissions need to be removed or sequestered - not avoided

Nature-based Sequestration
  • Carbon removal with short lived storage
  • Less permanent (decades)
  • Higher risk of reversal
Afforestation
Reforestation
Peat restoration
Mangrove restoration
Ecosystem restoration
Soil carbon enhancement
Technology-based Removal
  • Carbon removal with long lived storage
  • More permanent (centuries/millennia)
  • Lower risk of reversal
Biochar
Mineralization
Direct Air Capture (DAC)
Enhanced weathering
Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS)
Forests
Nature Based Solution
Reforestation, afforestation, ecosystem restoration

Planting trees removes CO2 - everyone knows that! We also need to ensure they survive long enough so the CO2 isn’t released back into the atmosphere. Most forest projects employ local communities to secure their survival as well as have significant co-benefits such as reducing soil erosion, maintaining watersheds and supporting biodiversity.

Biomass
Tech Based Solution
Biochar, Bio-oil, Bio Energy

Collecting leftover agricultural or forestry waste and subjecting it to pyrolysis, or heating above 500°C in the absence of oxygen, yields some interesting results. Biochar, otherwise known as charcoal is one. It’s an age-old method of increasing soil health and has great potential to be a substitute for coal and coke in the steelmaking process.

Mineralization
Tech Based Solution
Enhanced weathering, olivine, peridotite, carbon negative concrete

Minerals like olivine make up over 50% of the Earth’s crust. It’s claim to carbon fame? Every kilo of this volcanic rock captures one kilo of CO2. We can speed up the weathering process by crushing it finely, and even spread it in soil to increase yields. We can also collect CO2 and mineralize it into concrete. Time to build back better!

DAC & CCUS
Tech Based Solution
Direct Air Capture (DAC) & Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS)

DAC uses state-of-the-art technology to suck CO2 out of the sky, it's the very cutting edge of carbon removal. Projects that source CO2 from waste streams like CCUS, from a narrow lifecycle perspective, count as carbon avoidance. But, technically speaking, we urgently need to reduce emissions from heavy industry. CCUS is the answer!

Ocean
Nature Based Solution
Tech Based Solution
Seaweed storage, seawater alkanization, mangrove restoration

The Earth needs your kelp! We can grow algae or seaweed and sink it deep into Davy Jones' locker for long term CO2 storage. There are some questions on long-term impact that remain. But in the mean time you can always support mangrove restoration. After all they do sequester 4-5 times more CO2 than regular trees on a ton-for-ton basis.

Soil
Nature Based Solution
No-till, re-flooding peatlands, rotational grazing, regenerative agriculture

At its core, regenerative agriculture is farming and ranching in harmony with nature. Indigenous communities have been doing so for millennia. We just need incentives to prioritize soil health and biodiversity to leave ecosystems in better shape for future generations. At this stage sequestering soil carbon remains an uncertain approach to climate change mitigation - but technology could change that quickly!

© ESG-NRG: 2022